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DescriptionThis clone has been optimized for use with eBioscience IC Fixation and Permeabilization kit (cat. 88-8823). Applications Tested: This mhalx21 antibody has been tested on Th17-polarized splenocytes restimulated with PMA, Ionomycin and Brefeldin A for 5 hours. This can be used at less than or equal to 0.25 µg per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test. It is recommended that the antibody be carefully titrated for optimal performance in the assay of interest. Excitation: 488-561 nm; Emission: 578 nm; Laser: Blue Laser, Green Laser, Yellow-Green Laser. Filtration: 0.2 μm post-manufacturing filtered. IL-21 is a 17 kDa immunomodulatory cytokine produced mainly by Natural Killer Cells (NKT), T helper (Th) 17 and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In TFH cells, IL-21 expression leads to autocrine signaling through the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and STAT3, which leads to additional transcriptional activation by Bcl6. As with IFN gamma for Th1 and IL-4 for Th2 cells, IL-21 is critical for TFH cell development and effector function. IL-21 plays a role in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, stimulation of IgG production and induction of apoptotic signaling in naive B cells. In Th17 cells, IL-21 expression and autocrine feedback through STAT3, IRF4 and ROR gamma t lead to upregulation of the IL-23R, thereby preparing Th17 cells for maturation and maintece by the inflammatory cytokine IL-23. While upregulating IRF4 and ROR gamma t, IL-21 also mediates the downregulation of Foxp3. IL-21 deficient mice are protected from developing colitis upon chemical treatment by their inability to upregulate Th17-associated molecules. In comparison, elevated levels of IL-21 are present in chemically-induced colitis mouse models.
|PBS with 0.1% gelatin and 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2|
|Interleukin-21, IL-21, Za11|
|4° C, store in dark, DO NOT FREEZE!|
For Research Use Only.